Arise！ You who refuse to be bound slaves！ Let's stand up and fight for Liberty and true democracy！ All the world is facing The change of tyranny， Everyone who wants freedom is now crying： Arise！ Arise！ Arise！ All of us in one heart， With the torch of freedom， March on！ With the torch of freedom， March on！ March on！ March on and on！
The Chinese National Anthem: March of the Volunteers
The official anthem of China is March of the Volunteers 义勇军进行曲 (Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ). It was written in 1935 by the poet and playwright Tian Han, and the composer Nie Er.
The song honored soldiers and revolutionaries who were fighting the Japanese in northeast China in the 1930s. It was originally written as a theme song to a popular propaganda play and movie that encouraged the Chinese people to resist the Japanese invasion.
Both Tian Han and Nie Er were active in the resistance. Nie Er was influenced by popular revolutionary songs at the time, including the Internationale. He was drowned in 1935.
Following the Chinese Communist Party's victory in the civil war in 1949, a committee was set up to decide on a national anthem. There were nearly 7,000 entries, but an early favorite was March of the Volunteers. It was adopted as the provisional national anthem on September 27, 1949.
Years later, during the political turmoil of the Cultural Revolution Tian Han was jailed and subsequently died in 1968. As a result, March of the Volunteers was banned. In its place, many used "The East is Red" a popular Communist song.
March of the Volunteers was eventually restored as the Chinese anthem in 1978 but with different lyrics that specifically praised the Communist Party and Mao Zedong.
After the death of Mao and the liberalization of the Chinese economy, Tian Han's original version was restored by the National People's Congress in 1982.
The Chinese anthem was played in Hong Kong for the first time in the 1997 handover of British control of Hong Kong to China, and in the 1999 handover of Portuguese control of Macao to China. They were subsequently adopted as the national anthems in Hong Kong and Macao. For many years until the 1990s, the song was banned in Taiwan.
In 2004, the Chinese constitution was officially amended to include March of the Volunteers as its official anthem.
Nigeria incumbent in tight spot as poll nears ~ The country’s fortunes have turned on oil for decades. It became a member of the international oil cartel OPEC in the early 1970s and petroleum products are by far the country’s largest cash-earning export, earning it around $92 billion in 2012, according to U.S. government figures. The U.S. was a major market for Nigerian oil up until 2012, comprising around 10 percent of all U.S. oil imports. That figure has dwindled to around 1 percent, however, with the U.S. boom in shale oil and gas production, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration.~ 26 Mar 2015